Steve Rayner

In this talk at the 2012 If Conference, Steve Rayner, argues that cities are places where the opposing forces of innovation and inertia, or ‘lock-in’, are constantly at work. How often does the width of roads change or the height of train carriages, for example? There are ways that cities can avoid being trapped by old decisions.

The inaugural If Conference, from debate forum Intelligence Squared, took place on November 25-26th November 2012 in London. More than 30 celebrated scientists, award winning architects, farsighted futurologists and other brilliant minds shed light on the excitements and the dangers of tomorrow’s world. For more information visit